全球两栖类危机

全球至少有一半的两栖动物的种群数量在不断下降。世界自然保护联盟IUCN开展的两栖类评估发现,32.5%的两栖物种已濒临灭绝,这个比例位于所有脊椎动物的首位(Stuart et al. 2004; IUCN 2006)。全球两栖类面临的灭绝危机前所未有,亟待采取保护行动,拯救现存的野生种群(Mendelson et al. 2006)。

两栖类传染性疾病在野生种群间的传播直接导致了两栖类的种群衰退,甚至是灭绝 (Mendelson et al. 2006)。壶菌引起的壶菌病 (Berger et al. 1998)已造成了全球超过200个两栖物种的种群数量下降(Kilpatrick et al. 2010)。而蛙病毒引起的病毒感染也导致了全球两栖类的大量死亡(Collins and Storfer 2003; Daszak et al. 2003)。

全球两栖类和他们的淡水栖息地从未像现在一样需要保护。世界会因为失去两栖动物而不同,它们丰富了我们的生活、环境,而我们对它们的依赖也远远超乎想象。两栖动物在地球上繁衍了数代,现今却因为来不及适应人类带来的生存挑战,很多物种处境堪忧。两栖类是可持续未来的象征,人类的生存与他们息息相关,我们也许可以通过了解它们及其面临的困境,努力为我们共同传承的地球共建一个可持续的未来。

 

参考文献

Collins, J.P. and Storfer, A. 2003. Global amphibian declines: sorting the hypotheses. Diversity and Distributions 9:89-98.

Daszak, P., Cunningham, A.A. and Hyatt, A.D. 2003. Infectious disease and amphibian population declines. Diversity and Distributions 9: 141-150.

IUCN, Conservation International and NatureServe. 2006. Global Amphibian Assessment. Global Amphibian Assessment. Accessed on 08 December 2006.

Kilpatrick, A.M., Briggs, C.J. and Daszak, P. 2010. The ecology and impact of chytridiomycosis: an emerging disease of amphibians. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 25(2): 109-118.

Mendelson III, J. R., Lips, K. R. , Gagliardo, R.W., Rabb, G.B., Collins, J.P., Diffendorfer, J.E., Daszak, P., R. Ibáñez D.R., Zippel, K. C., Lawson, D.P.,  Wright, K.M., Stuart, S.N., Gascon, C., da Silva, H.R., Burrowes, P.A., Joglar, R.L., La Marca, E., Lötters, S., du Preez, L.H., Weldon, C., Hyatt, A., Rodriguez-Mahecha, J.V., Hunt, S., Robertson, H., Lock, B., Raxworthy, C.J., Frost, D.R., Lacy, R.C., Alford, R.A., Campbell, J.A., Parra-Olea, G., Bolaños, F., Calvo Domingo, J.J., Halliday, T., Murphy, J.B., Wake, M.H., Coloma, L.A., Kuzmin, S.L., Stanley Price, M., Howell, K.M., Lau, M., Pethiyagoda, R., Boone, M., Lanoo, M.J., Blaustein, A.R., Dobson, A., Griffiths, R.A., Crump, M.L., Wake, D.B., & Brodie Jr. E.D. 2006. Confronting amphibian declines and extinctions. Science 313:48.

Stuart, S.N., Chanson, J.S., Cox, N.A., Young, B.E., Rodrigues, A.S., Fischman, D.L. & Waller, R.W. 2004. Status and trends of amphibian declines and extinctions worldwide. Science 306(5702): 1783-6.

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